Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is the most common malignant CNS tumor in children with peak incidence between 5–9 years of age. Patients typically present with cerebellar deficits and headaches with vomiting, specifically in the mornings. Prognosis varies according to multiple factors including histology, age at diagnosis, and metastases. Medulloblastoma treatment is an intense, multi-modality therapy that can have many resulting late effects. Recent findings have shown medulloblastoma to be a heterogeneous disease which includes multiple subgroups.
These subgroups can impact prognosis and treatment and pave the way for molecular guided therapy and reduced intensity therapy, leading to fewer late effects. Molecular subgroups can also impact and guide the conversation about the treatment journey with patients and families. This presentation will introduce the learner to the major molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma and discuss the histology, demographics, and prognostic impact of each as well as molecular guided therapies. It will also provide an overview of future trends in the area of medulloblastoma research and targeted therapies and discuss the late effects of medulloblastoma treatment and why it is important to carefully consider the impact of treatment.
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