Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for developing serious and sometimes fatal infectious complications. Common viral infections post-transplant occur from reactivation of a dormant virus, including herpes simplex (HSV), Varicella (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK virus and Ebstein Barr Virus (EBV). Immunocompromised patients may also experience significant morbidity and mortality from common respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Interventions vary greatly and can include prophylaxis, preemptive therapy or treatment of active infection. A variety of antiviral agents are now used including cellular immune therapy. A pharmacologic review will show that antiviral agents often have different dosage schemes, complex side effect profiles, and the need for supportive care.
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